Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition characterized by emotional fluctuations. The person often alternates between periods of mania and depression.

During periods of mania, the person is overly energetic, hyperactive, and exuberant. The need for sleep decreases, the speed of speech increases and the flow of thought accelerates. Excessive self-confidence, grandiose thoughts and risky behaviors are also features of the mania period.

During periods of depression, the person experiences symptoms such as hopelessness, helplessness and loss of energy. Symptoms such as sleep and appetite disturbances, loss of interest, difficulty concentrating, feeling of worthlessness, suicidal thoughts or actions may occur. These periods usually last longer than manic periods.

The disease can begin in a certain life period and usually continues throughout life. Although the exact cause is unknown, many factors are thought to play a role, including genetic factors, imbalances in brain chemistry, and a combination of environmental factors.


Manic Period Symptoms:

  • Insomnia or the need for little sleep
  • Fast speaking and thinking
  • Constant movement or restlessness
  • Feeling extraordinary, powerful or superior
  • Claiming significant achievements or talents
  • Believing that a major project or plan will be accomplished
  • Difficulty focusing
  • Quick thinking and quickly switching between ideas
  • Difficulty completing tasks
  • Excessive spending or waste of money
  • Unprotected sex or excessive sexual activity
  • Engaging in risky business or investments
  • Drug or alcohol abuse

Depression Period Symptoms:

  • Constantly feeling tired
  • Lack of energy and fatigue
  • Changes in sleep patterns (oversleeping or inability to sleep)
  • Intense feeling of sadness, sadness and hopelessness
  • Loss of interest and pleasure
  • Withdrawal, anxiety and restlessness
  • Concentration difficulties and memory problems
  • Feelings of worthlessness and low self-esteem
  • Difficulties in decision making
  • Thoughts of death or suicide
  • Loss of appetite or excessive appetite
  • Weight changes (rapid weight gain or weight loss)

Bipolar disorder is a manageable condition when properly diagnosed and appropriate treatments are applied. Treatment often includes a combination of medications (eg, mood stabilizers) and psychotherapy (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy). In addition, factors such as lifestyle adjustments, regular sleep patterns, stress management, and social support can improve patients’ health.

Licensed Clinical Psychologist
Beyhan Perim Secmen

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